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June 2015

Volume 2  Issue 2

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Case Report

Bilateral Hydronephrosis in a Female with Advanced Pelvic Floor Prolapse and Normal Renal Function

Mukhamad Sami Valid*, Uri Goldberg and Nadezhda Zaytseva

Bilateral hydronephrosis in elderly women with advanced pelvic floor prolapse may cause serious medical problems or may be an incidental finding. The downward descent of the bladder due to pelvic floor prolapse may cause narrowing of the lower parts of the ureters on both sides resulting in bilateral hydronephrosis with dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces which may or may not be associated with significant decline in kidney function. We present the case of a 78 year old lady with bilateral hydronephrosis with pelvic floor prolapse with preserved renal function.

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Mini Review

Gynecological Disorders Related to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Coelho JK*, Aldrighi JM, Oliari CB, Fam GYHI, Rossi RM, Fernandes RT

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) primarily affects women aged over 40 years, and typically presents with persistent fatigue for more than 6 months, associated with rheumatologic, infectious, and neurological symptoms. Although CFS is characterized as a functional syndrome, due to the absence of an organic cause, there is evidence of a strong correlation between CFS and hormonal factors, particularly those involved in the pathophysiology of chronic anovulation. Gynecological surgeries and endometriosis may also be associated with CFS.

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Review Article

Metformin and Weight Loss in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Coelho JK, Aldrighi JM

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, occurring in approximately 6–15% of this population. One of the hallmarks of PCOS is menstrual irregularity, which affects approximately 80% of patients. The pathophysiology of menstrual irregularity is related to chronic anovulation, and the symptom has a direct impact on fertility. Another common manifestation, hyperandrogenism, is typically associated with hirsutism; acne and/or alopecia may also occur, with devastating effects on the patient’s self-esteem.

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Case Report

Cryptosporidium in Pregnancy; an Exploration of Risk

Margaret Krueger*

The patient of study is a 28-year-old African-American female, gravida 3 para 2, with past medical history including chronic hypertension and anxiety. She initially presented to the emergency room at 14 weeks gestation with 9-day complaint of gastrointestinal symptoms which had progressed to severe vomiting and diarrhea over the past 3 days. She reported one of her children had similar illness, and his stool culture had been positive for shigella.

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